The evolution of human beings on earth started about 20-30 lakh years ago. First fossils found in India date back to 10-14 million years ago.History constitutes the efforts put forth by the mankind from the past ages to lead a happy life. These efforts are in the form of cutting forests, creating water sources, promoting co-operation among themselves, beginning to start a cultured and civilized life, creating arts, literature, and music for happiness etc. For the sake of good administration, the man also created some rules and regulations. These activities of mankind are passed down through the generations as historical achievements and Heritage.
Formation of the earth: When?
It is believed that the planet Earth was formed some 1000 million years ago and a creature like a man came into existence some 20-30 lakh years ago. Human beings began to develop themselves by studying their surroundings. The requirements like food, water, shelter were attained by constant investigation of the surroundings and experiments. The history of mankind can be divided into the following three headings:
Pre-historic age: This age has no written recording of the developments which took place.
Proto-historic age: It is the period between the pre-historic and historic age
Historic age: This has written records of the developments. This age can be divided into Ancient, Medieval and Modern ages. Archeology and Anthropology help us to know about the history.
Archeology and Anthropology
Archeology: Archeology is useful to study about the people and their way of living in a particular period. The tools and articles used by the ancient people have been buried under the layers of the earth. These tools and articles have been excavated by archeologists are called as artifacts. These artifacts provide useful information about the people who have used them.
Anthropology: Anthropology is useful in studying the history of human beings of ancient period. Skeletons, bones, skull and teeth of humans have been excavated at various sites. These provide valuable evidences to the written records of particular period. The fossils in the upper layers of the earth are estimated by radio carbon dating technique.
Evolutionary stages of human beings
The evolutionary stages of human beings are as follows:
c) Homo Erectus
d) Neanderthal Man
e) Homo Sapiens
Homo sapiens were also called as Cro-Magnons. They lived about 20 thousand years ago. They were the immediate ancestors of the modern man who used tools for hunting. They also painted in the caves depicting their experiments.
Evolutionary history of man in relation to India
- First fossils found in India were Male (Rama pithecus) Female (Shiva pithecus) dating back to 10-14 million years ago.
- These fossils were found in Shivalik range.
- Also fossils of Homo erectus were found in upper Paleolithic regions of Indian sub-continent.
- First evidence of Homo sapiens were found at Sarai Nahr Rai (Allahabad), Bagaikhor and Lekhania (Mirzapur district) and Bagor (Rajasthan)
Derivation of the name of our country
- The name Bharatavarsha or the land of Bharata was given to the whole country, after the name of an ancient tribe called Bharata. The descendants of this tribe were called Bharata santati.
- Bharata varsha is considered to the part of the larger unit called Jambu Dvipa which considered to the inner most part of the seven concentric island continents in to which earth is supposed to be divided.
- The names India and Hindustan were given by the early invaders of the country namely Persian and Greeks.
- The Greeks pronounced the word Sindu as Indus and hence India
- The Persians pronounced the word ‘S’ as ‘H’ so the name Sindu became Hindu and Hence Hindustan.
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